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They are cut from sheets of silver and often sold near shrines to place upon the door or grille of a shrine Vesel The func- tion often dictates the iconography. In each case the figure is surrounded by signs and symbols. The latter are of clay and have spiral inscriptions invoking demons, while the Islamic ones are of metal and noticeably lacking in any reliance upon jinn and demons.

Islamic magic medicinal bowls are distinct among magical artifacts for a number of IA reasons: a they were not carried or worn by the sufferer hence not an amulet ; b they do not function continuously, as a household amulet would; c they R were employed only when needed, yet they were of a lasting material; and d the TE early examples are far more informative as to their intended use than any other magical artifact, for the early twelfth—fourteenth century examples are engraved A with statements giving specific therapeutic uses.

Syria dated — Height: 7. Nasser D. Courtesy of the Khalili Family Trust. Probably Deccan sixteenth—seventeenth centuries. While they display a more limited use of color, they often bear numerous magic squares of various types. The shiny surface may have become associated with the arts of crystal gazing in which any reflective surface such as water or ink could be used. H A number of medieval Iranian mirrors are preserved, usually from the late IG twelfth or thirteenth century, on which talismanic designs have been engraved upon the shiny surface Savage Smith , no.

There is no relationship R in terms of design between the two faces of these mirrors. O C Conclusion This chapter has demonstrated that beliefs in magic were widespread throughout the medieval Islamic world and later on, permeating societies at all levels. This resulted not only in a body of literature in which a wide variety of practices was described and debated but also in the development of a particular vocabulary of motifs found on objects ranging from the simple paper amulet of an everyday nature to the luxurious talismanic shirt made for a sultan.

See Kruk For example, 10—90 have one lunette, numbers — have two R lunettes Canaan — — TE 10 Pseudo-Majriti , p. H 16 Delhi Arabic MS , fols 84v—94r, fols r—v.

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Gardiner 86—88, 75; Francis 97— C 24 Hamadan ; Lory Then follow names which are grouped R according to euphony or use of different Arabic roots to express different, some- times opposite, meanings. M 38 For a discussion of how the term entered the English language, for example, see Warner For other terms see Canaan — Le nom supreme de dieu. Naples: Instituto Universitario Orientale, pp.

C Asatrian, M. Ibn Khaldun on magic and the occult. Iran and the Caucasus, 7 1 , 73— Bernheimer, T. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Translated from the Arabic and with foreword by H. New Delhi: Adam Publishers.

An amulet from Afsharid Iran. Journal of the Walters Art Museum, 59, 85— Boudet, J.

Picatrix, au Carrefour de savoirs et pratique magique. Boudet, A. Caiozzo, and N. Bulliet, R. Medieval Arabic Tarsh: A forgotten chapter in the history of print- ing.

Journal of Arabic and Oriental Studies, 10, — Burnett, C. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, L 44, — IA Burnett, C. Kray, W. Ryan, and C. London: Warburg Institute, pp. Burnnet, C. Hermann of Carinthia and the Kitab al Istimatis. A Caiozzo, A. Caiozzo, A.

Images et magie: Picatrix entre Orient et D Occident. Cammann, S. Islamic and Indian magic squares. History of Religions, 8, —, TE — Canaan, T.

Arabic magic bowls. Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society, 16, 79— H Canaan, T. The decipherment of Arabic talismans, Berytus, 4, 69—, and IG 5, — Reprinted in E. Magic and Divination in Early Islam. Aldershot: Ashgate. R Carboni, S. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

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Dawkins, J. Dols, M. The theory of magic in healing. The Formation of the Classical Islamic World.

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Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. A far eastern type of print making technique for Islamic amulets from the Mediterranean: An unpublished example. Scripta, 6, 67— Magie et religion en Afrique du Nord. Algiers: A. Leiden: Brill. Epelboin, A. Fierro, M.

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Maslama b. Flood, F. IA Flood, F. Princeton: Princeton University Press. R Flood, F. Bodies and becoming: Mimesis, mediation and the ingestion of the sacred in Christianity and Islam. Promey ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. Forrest, B. Of hexagrams and pentagrams. Numismatics International, 36, pp. A Francis IV, E. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the University of California for D the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.